Thinkers on Violence & Revolution

Jacobins: Robespierre, Saint-Just
1908 Sorel: Reflections on Violence
1921 Benjamin: “Critique of Violence”
de Beauvoir
1961 Fanon: Damned of the Earth
1963 Arendt: On Revolution, esp. 28
1969 Arendt: On Violence
Arendt: “Action” (Human Condition)
1972 Girard: Violence and the Sacred
Foucault: Society must be Defended
F. on revolution: Kritzman anthology, 121-2
Derrida: “Force of the Law”
2004 Keane: Reflections on Violence
2005 Ross: Violent Democracy
Ranciere: Disagreement
Negri: Insurgencies
Andreas Kalyvas
2009 Mouffe: Democratic Paradox
Honig on agonism
St. Johnston: Encountering Tragedy [on Rousseau], ch. on Founding
Reading List (2016): Left Wing Movements in Africa

Books/Collections on Tragedy

Lukacs: Historical Novel
Szondi: Theory of Modern Drama
Foucault: Lectures on the Will to Know; Government of Self, 1-23
1966 Williams: Modern Tragedy, 74-84 on tragedy & revolution
1980 Reiss: Tragedy & Truth (tragedy & history: 20, 301)
1986 Euben
1997 Jewett: Fatal Autonomy
1997 Rocco: Tragedy & Enlightenment
1997 Johnston: Encountering Tragedy [on Rousseau]: ch. on Founding
2002 Reiss: Against Autonomy
2003 Eagleton
2004 Scott: Conscripts of Modernity
2004 Taxidou: Tragedy, Modernity, and Mourning
2005 Krell: Tragic Absolute
2008 Felski: Rethinking Tragedy
2008 Rebecca Bushnell
2009 Witt: Aesthetic Fascism
2010 Viv Soni: Mourning Happiness
2012 Nikolopoulou: Tragically Speaking
2012 Augst: Tragic Effects
2013 Michelakis: Greek Tragedy on Screen
2014 Foley & Howard: PMLA
2014 Billings: Genealogy of the Tragic
2015 Billings & Leonard: Tragedy and the Idea of Modernity


The Spider’s Stratagem (Bertolucci, 1970)


Affron, Charles. 1971. A Stage for Poets: Studies in the Theatre of Hugo and Musset. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Althusser, Louis. 1997. “The ‘Piccolo Teatro’: Bertolazzi and Brecht – Notes on a Materialist Theater” [1962]. Trans. Ben Brewster. In Timothy Murray, ed.: Mimesis, Masochism, and Mime: The Politics of Theatricality in Contemporary French Thought. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Alvis, John. 1986. “On the American Line: O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra and the Principles of the Founding.” The Southern Review 22: 1 (January), 69-85.

Anton, John P. 1983. “Kazantzakis and the Tradition of the Tragic.” Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 10: 4 (Winter), 53-67.

Bassanese, Fiora A. 1997. Understanding Luigi Pirandello. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Benn, Maurice B. 1976. The Drama of Revolt: A Critical Study of Georg Büchner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bentley, Eric. 1966. “Il Tragico Imperatore.” Tulane Drama Review 10:3 (Spring), 60-74.

Bien, Peter. 1977. “Kazantzakis’ Kapodistrias, a (Rejected) Offering to Divided Greece, 1944-1946.” Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 3, 141-73.

Brecht, Bertolt. 1976. Poems 1913-1956. John Willett and Ralph Manheim, eds. New York: Methuen.

———. Life of Galileo [1955], Trans. John Willett. New York: Arcade Publishing.

Büchner, Georg. 1993. Complete Plays, Lenz, and Other Writings. Trans. John Reddick. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Camus, Albert. 1956. The Rebel [1951]. Trans. Anthony Bower. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

———. 1984. Caligula. Cross Purpose. The Just [trans. Henry Jones]. The Possessed. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Caputi, Anthony. 1988. Pirandello and the Crisis of Modern Consciousness. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Chaudhuri, Una. 1991. “Marat/Sade and the Politics of Interpretation.” In Hanna Scolnicov and Peter Holland, eds.: Reading Plays: Interpretation and Reception. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Constantinidis, Stratos E. 2001. Modern Greek Theatre: A Quest for Hellenism. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.

Cohen, M. A. 1989. “History and Moral in Brecht’s The Life of Galileo” [1970]. In Siegfried Mews, ed.: Critical Essays on Bertolt Brecht. Boston: G. K. Hall.

Cox, Jeffrey N. 1987. In the Shadows of Romance: Romantic Tragic Drama in Germany, England, and France. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

———. 1994. “Romantic Definitions of the Tragic.” In Gerald Gillespie, ed.: Romantic Drama. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dickinson, Hugh. 1969. Myth on the Modern Stage. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Egri, Peter. 1988. “The Electra Complex of Puritan Morality and the Epic Ambition of O’Neillian Tragedy.” In Shyamal Bagcchee, ed.: Perspectives on O’Neill: New Essays. Victoria, B.C.: English Literary Studies.

Fairchild, Terry. 20001. “Varieties of Consciousness in Pirandello’s Henry IV.” Studies in the Literary Imagination 34:2 (Fall), 29-37.

Fiskin, A. M. I. 1948. “Luigi Pirandello: The Tragedy of the Man Who Thinks.” Italica 25:1 (March), 44-51.

Freeman, E. 1971. The Theatre of Albert Camus: A Critical Study. London: Methuen.

Grass, Günter. 1966. The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising [1966]. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Graver, David. 1997. “Luther: The Morbid Grandeur of Corporeal History.” In Patricia D. Denison, ed.: John Osborne: A Casebook. New York: Garland Publishing.

Giudice, Gaspare. 1975. Pirandello: A Biography. Trans. A. Hamilton. London: Oxford University Press.

Herbert, Robert L. 1972. David, Voltaire, Brutus and the French Revolution: An Essay in Art and Politics. London: Allen Lane The Penguin Press.

Howarth, W. D. 1975. Sublime and Grotesque: A Study of French Romantic Drama. London: Harrap.

Kazanzakis, Nikos. 1971. Kapodistrias [1946]. In Theatro – Tragodies. Athens: Ekdoseis El. Kazantzaki.

Kowsar, Mohammad. 1984. “Analytics of Schizophrenia: A Deleuze-Guattarian Consideration of Büchner’s Danton’s Death and Weiss’s Marat/Sade.” Modern Drama 27:3 (September), 361-81.

Lever, J. W. 1987. The Tragedy of State: A Study of Jacobean Drama [1971]. London: Methuen.

Long, Chester Clayton. 1968. The Role of Nemesis in the Structure of Selected Plays by Eugene O’Neill. The Hague: Mouton.

Lyons, Robert. 1999. “In Search of Brecht: Notes from Rehearsals of ‘Leben des Galilei’ at the Berliner Ensemble, 1997.” New Theatre Quarterly 15:3 (August), 256-79.

Metzger, Lore. 1987. “Günter Grass’s Rehearsal Play.” In Patrick O’Neill, ed.: Critical Essays on Günter Grass. Boston: G. K. Hall.

Miles, Keith. 1975. Günter Grass. New York: Barnes and Noble.

Moorton, Jr., Richard F. 1990. “Eugene O’Neill’s American Eumenides.” Classical and Modern Literature 10: 359-72.

Musset, Alfred de. 1998. Lorenzaccio. Ed. Derek F. Connon. London: Bristol Classical Press.

O’Brien, Charles H. 1969. “Osborne’s Luther and the Humanistic Tradition.” Renascence 21:2 (Winter), 59-63.

O’Neill, Eugene. 1947. “Working Notes and Extracts from a Fragmentary Work Diary.” In Barrett H. Clark, ed.: European Theories of Drama. New York:

———. 1995. Three Plays: Desire under the Elms, Strange Interlude, Mourning Becomes Electra. New York: Vintage International.

Osborne, John. 1961. Luther. London: Faber and Faber.

Paulson, Ronald. 1983. Representations of Revolution (1789-1820). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Peacock, Ronald. 1960. The Poet in the Theatre [1946]. New York: Hill and Wang.

Pickar, Gertrud Bauer. “Silberpappeln and Saatkartoffeln: The Interaction of Art and Reality in Grass’ Die Plebejer proben den Aufstand.” In Edward R. Haymes, ed.: Theatrum Mundi: Essays on German Drama and German Literature Dedicated to Harold Lenz on his Seventieth Birthday, September 11, 1978. Munich: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.

Pirandello, Luigi. 1952. The Emperor (Henry IV) [1922]. In Naked Masks: Five Plays. Trans. Eric Bentley. New York: E.P. Dutton.

  1. “On Humor” [1908, 1920]. Trans. Teresa Novel. Tulane Drama Review 10:3 (Spring), 46-59.

Poole, Adrian. 2005. Tragedy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Porter, Thomas E. 1969. Myth and Modern American Drama. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.

Quilliot, Roger. 1970. The Sea and Prisons: A Commentary on the Life and Thought of Albert Camus [1956]. Trans. Emmett Parker. University of Alabama Press.

Rennert, Hellmut Hal, ed. 2004. Essays on Twentieth-Century German Drama and Theater: An American Exception, 1977-1999. New York: Peter Lang.

Richardson, Alan. 1988. A Mental Theater: Poetic Drama and Consciousness in the Romantic Age. Unversity Park: Pennsylvania State University Press

Rieder, John. 1997. Wordsworth’s Counterrevolutionary Turn: Community, Virtue, and Vision in the 1970s. Newark: University of Delaware Press.

Rokem, Freddie. 2000. Performing History: Theatrical Representations of the Past in Contemporary Theatre. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Rupp, Gordon. 1965-6. “Luther and Mr. Osborne.” The Cambridge Quarterly 1:1 (Winter), 28-42).

Santeramo, Donato. 1999. Enrico IV: The Perfect Theatrical Machine.” Rivista di Studi Italiani 17: 2 (December), 99-109.

Schmeling, Manfred. 1994. “’Theater in the Theater’ and ‘World Theater’: Play Thematics and the Breakthrough of Romantic Drama.” Trans. Simon Sreberny. In Gerald Gillespie, ed.: Romantic Drama. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Schumacher, Ernst. 1968. “The Dialectics of Galileo.” Trans. Joachim Neugroschel. The Drama Review 12: 2 (Winter), 124-33.

Schwarz, Alfred. 1978. From Büchner to Beckett: Dramatic Theory and the Modes of Tragic Drama. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.

Sices, David. 1974. Theater of Solitude: The Drama of Alfred de Musset. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Sokel, Walter H. 1962. “Brecht’s Split Characters and His Sense of the Tragic.” In Peter Demetz, ed.: Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Sologub, Fyodor. 1986. ‘The Theater of One Will’ [1908], in R.E. Peterson, ed.: The Russian Symbolists: An Anthology of Critical and Theoretical Writings. Ann Arbor: Ardis.

Spalter, Max. 1967. Brecht’s Tradition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Styan, J. L. 1962. The Dark Comedy: The Development of Modern Comic Tragedy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Suvin, Darko. 1988. “Weiss’s Marat/Sade and its Three Main Performance Versions.” Modern Drama 31: 3 (September), 395-419.

———. 1994. “Heavenly Food Denied: Life of Galileo.” In Peter Thomson and Glendyr Sacks, eds.: The Cambridge Companion to Brecht. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Szondi, Peter. 2002. An Essay on the Tragic [1961]. Trans. P. Fleming. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Tilgher, Adriano. 1967. “Life Versus Form” [1923?]. In Glauco Cambon, ed.: Pirandello: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Watkins, Daniel P. 1993. A Materialist Critique of English Romantic Drama. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Weiss, Peter. 1984. The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade [1964]. Trans. Geoffrey Skelton. New York: Atheneum.

Witt, Mary Ann Frese. 1990. “Towards a Theater of Immobility: Henry IV, The Condemned of Altona, and The Balcony.” Comparative Drama 24:2 (Summer), 151-172.

———. 2001. The Search for Modern Tragedy.: Aesthetic Fascism in Italy and France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Wordsworth, William. 1982. The Borderers. Robert Osborn, ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Williams, Raymond. 1966. Drama from Ibsen to Brecht. New York: Oxford University Press.

———. 1968. Modern Tragedy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.